Italy Trip

A post about my four day trip to Italy in which I covered Venice, Florence, Pisa, Rome and Vatican as much as time permitted!

How many days do you get to wake up in the morning and see a river flowing right beneath your window? How many times in a lifetime do you get to end your evening walk amidst a world wonder? Have you ever taken the road which “really” leads you to Rome? Italy gives you a chance to do all this and more!!

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Berlin

My solo trip to Berlin.

I am just back from a hectic day of touring Berlin (central area). I was so tired at the end of it all that I could barely move my legs to catch my return train. Yet here I am, a day later, trying to put into these few words what could, perhaps, be one of the most engrossing capital cities of the world!

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A Trip to the Medieval Ages

As I travelled back from Rothenburg a realization dawned on the atrocities that were carried out in the name of tradition and religion; something that was once so omnipresent in Europe; and to think that even the now modern Europe was under the grip of the dark ages centuries ago!

Rothenburg ob der Tauber or the old city of Rothenburg is perhaps one of the very few cities that comes bundled with its own city wall. It’s not just about the city wall or the museums that’s fascinating about this place, what strikes one the most as they enter one of the entrance towers of Rothenburg is how the whole town has been fabricated as one single historical unit.

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INR

This series covers the history and securities behind the INR currency note

I’d be covering some of the security features available in the currency we use daily in this three part series (thanks to bench life). What I would not be discussing is the economy/ fall and rise of the INR. I would try to make it as informative as possible and highlight many of those features that would otherwise go noticed…

To start off with a brush with history the oldest coins, more of seals to be exact, in India (or Hindustan) trace back to 2500 BC, the days of the Indus Valley Civilizations. But there are arguments as to whether the seals were actually used for trading i.e. as currencies[1]

The usage of silver/ gold in making coins can be traced to around 5th century BC when Punch Marked coins were introduced. Then there were the dynastic coins of Kushan, Satavahana, Kshatrapa, Mauryans, Gupta etc which mainly depicted king on one side of the coin and deity on the other end. Depiction of events and occasions in the coins came in a bit later. Trading between Europe and Middle East with ancient Indians ensured intermixed currencies that were in circulation.

Conquests by Arabs did see a big difference in use of Arabic styled Calligraphy. This was the case with that of Khiljis, Tughlaqs etc. In came the paper currencies inspired by the Chinese, which however turned out to a failed experiment thanks to the forgeries (yes even during that time). When Gold became scarce, it was time of metals like Copper to take over. But a method of standardizing currencies didn’t exist, that is till the period of the Vijayanagar Empire.

The dynasty in Vijayanagar evolved coinage of different metrology and design which was to remain as a standard in the region and influence coin design up to the 19th Century[2]. Amongst the significant gold coins of the Vijayanagar Empire were those bearing the image of the deity of Tirupati, i.e., Lord Venkatesvara represented either singly or with his two consorts. These coins inspired the ‘Single Swami’ Pagodas of the Dutch and French and the ‘Three Swami’ Pagodas of the English East India Company.

The actual birth of the Rupee can be attributed to the system of tri-metalism which came to characterise Mughal coinage was largely the creation, not of the Mughals but of Sher Shah Suri (1540 to 1545 AD), an Afghan, who ruled for a brief time in Delhi. Sher Shah issued a coin of silver which was termed the Rupiya. This weighed 178 grains and was the precursor of the modern rupee[3]

The regimes of Marathas, Sikhs and kingdom of Mysore followed more or less a similar pattern. The first machine struck coins were made by the Princely State of Hyderabad in the beginning of the 20th century[4]

By the time British power came into India Silver, Copper and Nickel formed the basic elements of coinage and rigid weight standards came into practice. Shortage of Silver by end of 1st world war ushered in the time for (re)appearance of paper currencies (for lower denominations).

The Anna system was introduced by the Republic India after a brief transition period in the post-independence age. The King (or Queen) portraits on one side of the coin was replaced by top half (Three Lions) of the National Emblem. Conversion wise this is how it stood: 1 rupee = 16 annas = 64 pices = 192 pies

This[5] was the way things stood till the concept of decimalization came into effect (1957-1964). The Rupee was divided into 100 Paisa instead of 16 Annas or 64 Pice and this system was termed Naya Paisa to gain public recognition. In addition to the decorations on either side of the coin, weight, metals used, shape and, thickness aided in forging the correctly valued coins. Low denominations began to be predominantly made out of Aluminium/ Magnesium.

From coins our focus will shift to paper notes and the current security features in them, that are being employed to prevent forgeries.


FOOTNOTES
1.  Ancient India Coinage
2.  Medieval India Coinage
3.  Moghul India Coinage
4.  Pre-Colonial India & Princely States: Coinage
5.  Republic India Coinage